Monday, May 25, 2020
Malcolm Hamilton Professor English 203 10, July 2014 Stephen Blackpool: Nice Guys Finish First Charles DickensÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬Å"Hard TimesÃ¢â¬ is a revolving plot line based on characteristics of many beliefs and values. Stephen Blackpool, a Hand in BounderbyÃ¢â¬â¢s factory, is a man of great honesty, compassion, and integrity. The backlash on Blackpool starts whenever he refuses to join the workersÃ¢â¬â¢ union because he believes that striking is not the best way to improve relations between factory owners and employees. He also wants to earn an honest living. As a result, he is cast out of the workersÃ¢â¬â¢ group, but then is approached by Bounderby to spy on his fellow co-workers. After refusing his proposal, he was laid off with other unfortunate circumstances to follow. Although many people see the world as black and white, Blackpool views it in a grey scale where his beliefs, morals, and values should put the Ã¢â¬Å"nice guyÃ¢â¬ first. While Blackpool has a simple, clear view that nice guys should finish first, Dickens on demonstrates time and time again, for most of his characters that English capitalist society works counter to those values. In Ã¢â¬Å"Hard TimesÃ¢â¬ , Dickens uses heroes, villains, and bystanders who represent people of his time. Dickens captures the social group system of nineteenth-century England by drawing from the travelers, represented by the circus people, the struggling labor class, the up and coming middle class, and the fading upper class. Stephen Blackpool, a hard-working power-loom
Thursday, May 14, 2020
Human beings are social creatures and they learn to socialize with others so they can feel a part of society. Through socialization people try and conform to the standards that come with being functioning members of society and fitting to the status quo. Besides interacting with others, we learn about the culture we live in. Culture teaches people the norms, the values, and what to believe in. The last influence that associates both society and culture is the media. Media has made a huge impact in the way people receive information, the kinds of programs they are exposed to, and the way we communicate with others. All of these influences are interpreted in both films Ã¢â¬Å"Miss RepresentationÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"The Mask You Live In.Ã¢â¬ Both films tackle and discuss the root of the problem as well as how it plagues our youth and the kind of future we will have. The film Ã¢â¬Å"Miss RepresentationÃ¢â¬ argues that the mass media industry impacts the way men, as well as women on how they are supposed to be represented in society. For example, many Americans spend numerous hours watching television. As commercials pop up, advertisers send subliminal messages so they can try to sell their products and gain the viewerÃ¢â¬â¢s attention. For men, advertisers target ages 18 to 34 because itÃ¢â¬â¢s harder to get them to watch television, so they encourage the networkers to come up with programming for men so they can sell their products to them. On the other hand, women like to watch television, so advertisersShow MoreRelatedThe Impact Of Technology On Media, Culture, And Society1193 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageseven imagine living without it. Throughout this essay, I will explain the effective impact of technology on media, culture, and society and will compare and contrast them. The first topic in this paper is media. What is media? Ã¢â¬Å"Media is the main means of mass communication (especially television, radio, newspapers, and the internet) regarded collectively.Ã¢â¬ (Oxford Dictionaries) With the growth of technology, media is also growing along with it. Every day you see more and more people on their cellRead MoreEssay about Impact of Mass Media on Individuals, Society, and Culture1178 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesImpact of Mass Media on Individuals, Society, and Culture Mass media, over the years, has had a profound effect on American society, on its culture, and on the individuals exposed to the media. Mass media is a form of socialization, having a long-term effect on each member of American society. While mass media targets the individual in short-term intervals, the overall influence on them has been established as the consumer moves from one impressionable age category to another. The long or short-Read MoreInfluence Of Mass Media885 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Mass Media: Development and Literacy Alicia Nunez HUM/186 Media Influences on American Culture 8/21/2017 Allyson Wells Mass Media: Development and Literacy In the last century mass media has went from paper to digital, these major developments have influenced American culture in many ways. Newspapers have been around from the beginning they provide readers with information of practical value such as; television schedules, weather maps, and listings of stock prices. In additionRead MoreAdvertisement And Culture Of The Media1658 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages______________________________________________________________________________ 1. Introduction In the era of information society, media is playing a very crucial part in everyday lives. It influences both how we see ourselves and society in all perspectives. There are different kinds of media and all of them are presenting their content in more fascinating and glamorize way to influence audience. The presentation of advertisement and pictures in the media is certainly creating a unique mental space in the mind of social capitals. As farRead MoreCulture and the Mass Media1400 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesImpact of Mass Media on Enculturation The mass media and culture go hand and hand in today s society. The American culture thrives on the Mass media and this has become American culture today. Ã¢â¬Å"Mass media is any medium used to transmit mass communication. Until recently mass media was clearly defined and was comprised of the eight mass media industries; books, newspapers, magazines, recordings, radio, movies, television and the Internet (Lane, 2007).Ã¢â¬ The mas media is no longer simple to defineRead MoreMass Media and Popular Culture953 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesMass Media and Popular Culture March, 2009 Let us face the facts, mass media and popular culture need each other to coexist. Furthermore, in todays society the mass media serves the interest of popular culture. Moreover, it is the vehicle of free speech in a diverse, multicultural society. In addition, mass media refers to communication via radio, televisions, movie theaters, television, newspapers, magazines, and, etc; thereby, reaching out to the larger audience. On the contrary, popularRead MoreInformation Medias Impact On The Effects Of News Media901 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesEffects of News Media Christopher Kramer HUM/186 August 7, 2017 Allyson Wells Effects of News Media The development of mass media had drastically changed over the last century and will continue to change. These advancements offer society a variety of avenues to access information instantaneously, which has an impact on American culture. Information Media and Social Responsibility Most major information media outlets do provide a social responsibility to provide fact-based information to theRead MoreThe Relationship Between Consumers And Businesses1113 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageswestern societies has changed due to the diffusion of technology. In addition, the tendency of Western societies to have consumer-based economies increases the impact that technological advances have on the way that business function and interact with their consumers. The widespread use of technology as well as the different functions available due to technological advances has caused businesses to shift their marketing strategies, affecting not only the consumer but also the structure of society itselfRead MoreThe Impact Of Mass Media On Youth And Society1378 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Impact of Mass Media on the Youth and Society Nowadays, the issue of mass media has caused much debate in the modern society, as well as mass media is becoming more important as a component that negatively affects the behavior of young people. There are many other factors, such as micro-environment, economic instability, the decline of moral values affecting children and young people and encourage them to commit unlawful acts. However, unlimited access to the Internet, mobile phone use in theRead MoreInfluence of Media and Culture on Self Image1724 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIs culture today experiencing information overload leading to self confusion? Having access to information twenty-four hours a day does not necessarily have a positive impact on society and self image. Media content despite its public charge does not exactly mirror real self image. Mass communication with television ads and movies offer an unrealistic view of the everyday person in various aspects of life. Media can have a positive or negative influence on cultu re and the way people view their lives
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Question 1: The action taken by the U.S. government has shaped the migration of the Japanese. Between the late 1800s and early 1900s and agreement was passed, where thousands of Japanese immigrants came to the United States. To employers, this was ideal; as we know employers benefitted from labor immigration, therefore they supported the immigration of Japanese citizens. However, white workers opposed their immigration in fear of lack of jobs. This trend can also be seen with the Mexican immigrants that migrate into the United States. Because of the fear of Japanese immigrants overpopulating and seizing white Americans of their job opportunities, there was a prohibition of immigration in the 1900s, which stopped the flooding of JapaneseÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Before, Japanese immigrants could have been driven out of their home country because of their economy and pulled by the potential job opportunities that the United States offered. In this case, Japanese immigrants were dr awn by the opportunities in the United States but later were no longer needed because of the growing economy in their country. Question 2: Around the 1940s, all Japanese American families were forced into concentration camps due to fear of Japanese invasion. Due to Japanese military victories and the attack on Pearl Harbor, the federal government viewed Japanese Americans as a threat to their security and took action into allocating them in concentration camps. However, this imprisonment did not happen over night, instead, the government issued their incarceration discreetly and with subtle steps. First, many aliens, including Italians, Germans and Japanese were moved from certain areas and were restricted from air travel. Following this, these groups were excluded from many Western states like California, Arizona, etc. The fact that Japanese Americans were not the only aliens being relocated and restricted could have led to a false sense of security between these groups. However, those of Japanese ancestry were finally detained, while Germans and Italians were not. In the end, Japanese Americans were all tr ansported in large numbers to concentration camps that resided in the west.
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Have you ever watched a movie where there was not a conflict at some point that needed to be solved? The answer should be no because within every movie there is always some kind of conflict that must be solved. In Ã¢â¬Å"Remember the TitansÃ¢â¬ there are at least a series of ten or more conflicts, whether they are physical, mental, interpersonal, or even just random violence. These conflicts affect the movie itself and because of that cannot be just left open but must be resolved at some point or in some way; along with that they also are either solved in a good way or a very bad way. Ã¢â¬Å"Remember the TitansÃ¢â¬ is the story about a school in North Carolina, where up until 1971, was all white and was segregated against the blacks. This of course causes most of the conflicts because of the white not liking the black and vice versa. Coach Boone had no troubles in coaching the two race team, whereas Yoast found that coaching a two race team was a weakness that he could not help but ignore. Each coach was designated an area of responsibility to provide to the team. Coach Boone was assigned to train the offence team, with that Boone not only improved the teams defence skills but increased team spirit, and decreased inequality and discrimination against race. Whereas Coach Yoast was in charge of the defence team and was quite ignorant and unsupportive of BooneÃ¢â¬â¢s idea of bringing the two races together, he just wanted the players to play good game. There was a varying range of the amount of similarities and differences when analysing the skills and qualities each coach possessed. The two coaches shared an equal amount of knowledge and skill in football, they were both fully equipped and experienced when analysing and playing football. Secondly, both coaches have a caring and nurturing nature toward the players. For instance, when Coach Boone asked Louie if he was attending college after school, Louie replied no, and in an unconfident tone proclaimed he wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t as knowledgeable as Rev. Coach Boone then told him in a supportive manner that he would tutor him at the end of the term to get him somewhere in life, showing his ability not only to coach, but to be a reliability in LouieÃ¢â¬â¢s life. Lastly, the different styles and techniques of coaching in comparison to the two coaches. Coach Boone articulated a distinct difference in the way he coached, compared to Coach Yoast. Coach Boone used the method of Ã¢â¬Ëtough loveÃ¢â¬â¢ on his players, he was disciplined and ultimate respect to him was required to be in the team, or there would be serious consequences. For instance when a player shouted during a training session Ã¢â¬ËCoach we need waterÃ¢â¬â¢, Coach Boone replied Ã¢â¬ËA water break? Water is for cowards. Water makes you weak. Water is for washing blood off that uniform and you dont get no blood on my uniform, boy you must be outside your mind. We are going to do up-downs, until Blue is no longer tired, and thirsty. Ã¢â¬â¢ Showing that he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t look twice on discipline in a military form. Another form of tough love was the structure of what Coach Boone defined as Ã¢â¬ËtrainingÃ¢â¬â¢. When he awoke all players at 3:00 in the morning, making them run 6 miles through a forest, stating Ã¢â¬ËIf you even think about stopping or walking, you may as well take the hike back home, because thatÃ¢â¬â¢s not the way true footballers train! Ã¢â¬â¢ Coach Yoast understood the players and felt quite sorry for them, he knew they disliked Coach Boone for his strict technique of coaching. Coach Yoast was the type of person that liked to impress everyone and didnÃ¢â¬â¢t like to be disliked. He wanted to make everyone happy, so he took the coaching the easy way, and was not a disciplinary as Coach Boone was. It is evident throughout the movie, that there are distinct comparisons between Coach Boone and Coach Yoast, they both share similarities and differences in their area of work, roles and responsibilities, qualities and the different styles of coaching. Although the two are dedicated and caring coaches, that possess the qualities of a good coach.
Tuesday, April 7, 2020
The melting pot has been used metaphorically to describe the dynamics of American social life. In addition to its descriptive uses, it has also been used to describe what should or should not take place in American social life. How did the term originate? How was it used originally? How is it used in contemporary society? What are some problems with the idea of the melting pot? How is public education connected to the idea of the melting pot? How does the melting pot function in American cultural and political ideology? These are some of the questions considered in the following discussion. The Statue of Liberty is by now a universally recognized symbol of American political mythology. She stands at the entrance of New York harbor, wearing a spiked crown representing the light of liberty shining on the seven seas and the seven continents. The statue was a gift to the United States from the people of France in 1884. We will write a custom essay sample on Melting Pot or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page It is made of riveted copper sheets, only 3/32 of an inch thick, ingeniously attached to a framework designed by Louis Eiffel. Its construction is such that it will not be stressed by high winds or temperature changes (The world Book Encyclopedia, pp. 874-875). The symbolism of the statue is reinforced by Emma LazarusÃ¢â¬â¢poem Ã¢â¬Å"The New ColossusÃ¢â¬ , which is inscribed on a plaque at the base of the statue. Not like the brazen giant of Greek fame, With conquering limbs astride from land to land; Here at our sea-washed, sunset gates shall stand A mighty woman with a torch, whose flame Is the imprisoned lightning, and her name Mother of exiles. From her beacon hand Glows world-wide welcome; her mild eyes command The air-bridged harbor that twin cities frame. Ã¢â¬Å"Keep, ancient lands, your storied pomp! Ã¢â¬ cries she With silent lips. Ã¢â¬Å"Give me your tired, your poor, Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free, The wretched refuse of your teeming shore. Send these, the tempest-tost to me. I lift my lamp beside the golden door. Ã¢â¬ (Emma Lazarus, 1883) The Statue of liberty, dedicated in 1886, became a visual symbol of American ideology. Between 1880 and 1930, 27 million people migrated to the United States (www. pbs. org/fmc/timeline/eimmigration. htm). Most of them entered by way of Ellis Island in New York harbor. Most of them would have ended their long six weeksÃ¢â¬â¢ journey with by seeing Miss Liberty come into view. These immigrants were about to enter the Ã¢â¬Å"golden door. Ã¢â¬ What lay behind it? What opportunities were imagined? What kind of life was imagined? How were these turn- of- the- century souls to become part of America? A Brief History of the Common School One powerful social institution that played an important part in the integrative process of immigrants, beginning in about the middle of the 19th century was the common school. Horace Mann, the first state school superintendent in Massachusetts and a strong advocate for a number of social reforms, including a system of public education, articulated the ideology of a common school in his Twelfth Annual Report of the Board of Education in 1849 (Boston: Dutton and Wentworth, 1849). He says: It (a free school system) knows no distinction of rich and poor, of bond and free, or between those, who, in the imperfect light of this world, are seeking, through different avenues, to reach the gate of heaven. Without money and without price, it throws open its doors, and spreads its table of bounty, for all the children of the State. Like the sun, it shines, not only upon the good, but upon the evil, that they may become good; and like the rain, its blessings descend, not only upon the just, but upon the unjust, that their injustice may depart from them and be known no more. This flowery description of the possibilities inherent in a system of free schools was to become part of American political ideology. Public schooling was seen as having the power to recreate and reform European immigrants into respectable, tractable, productive American citizens. Through a system of common schools, a variety of creeds and cultures could be amalgamated for the social stability and economic good of the country. By the late 1800s the public school movement in America was robust in the Northeast but just gaining momentum in the South. Its progress had been halting, proceeding at different rates under the influence of varying geographic, cultural, and economic circumstances. The common school, as it was first called, was to be tax supported. It was to have a common curriculum, regardless of the social station of its clientele, it was to be open to all, and it was to foster a common set of civic virtues. The public school movement in the Northeast began to gain ground in the early years of the 19th century. It was powerfully influenced and directed by the rise of industrialism, by charismatic reformers such as Horace Mann, by new modes of transportation, and by the contributions of American inventors. The historian S. Alexander Rippa says Ã¢â¬Å" In the history of American education, one of the most significant outcomes of the Industrial Revolution was the gradual emergence of a new, public school- minded working class in the northern cities. Indeed, the rapid growth of manufacturing depended on a readily available source of labor for the new factoriesÃ¢â¬ (Rippa, 1984. . 100). The labor force in the northern factories and mills was augmented by European immigrants: Between 1815 and 1845 almost 3 million emigrants had left their home shores for America (p. 101). Significant numbers of immigrants in mid-century America profoundly affected the public school movement. They formed a nucleus for organized labor, whose agenda included an interest in education; and their very presence in such large numbers fueled fears for the fragility of a young nation (p. 102). The common school was seen as an avenue for the assimilation of immigrants into American society. Formal schooling was not systematic in America in the mid-1800s, despite the regional efforts of strong advocates for public education. There were wide regional and cultural differences in attitudes toward the idea of tax-supported, systematic formal schooling based upon a common curriculum. Various religious groups had established schools for the perpetuation of their theology and culture, especially in the mid-Atlantic and Northern states. These groups were fearful of relinquishing responsibility to political authority. In the Southern states, slavery and a strong caste system were impediments to the development of public schools (p. 97). The influx of huge numbers of immigrants exacerbated religious and cultural tensions and engendered conflicts with American workers who were fearful for their jobs. This volatile situation created even more support for systematic public education as a socializing agent. Public education became part of a wider humanitarian movement addressing all kinds of social ills created by urbanization, industrialization, and immigration (p. 105). A diverse group of largely middle class reformers called for action to abolish slavery, to improve the conditions of the poor, to increase the legal rights of women, and to improve the educational opportunities for all classes of people. The social changes of the latter half of the 19th century buttressed a general belief in education as a pragmatic social institution. The South presented a special case, however, especially because of the devastating effects of the Civil War and Reconstruction as well as its long history of slavery. In the South, the integration of masses of newly freed slaves was an enormous task, especially in a decimated economy and in a social milieu that was still strongly class conscious. African Americans were largely illiterate because of a history of legal restrictions against educating them. There was also a Ã¢â¬Å"rising tide of illiteracy among the southern white peopleÃ¢â¬ (p147). The Peabody Education Fund, a philanthropic endeavor established by the wealthy financier George Peabody for the purpose of improving southern education, found that from 1862 to 1872 the white population had increased by 13%, but the illiteracy rate had increased by 50 % (p. 147). In the twelve years following the Civil War, the period known as Reconstruction, local government in the South was directed by the Federal government. This was a bitter pill for many white Southerners to swallow. Public education was identified in their minds with the agenda of Northern interlopers. It was further stigmatized in their minds by its association with charity schools. Therefore, the ideological potency of public education as a great equalizer was embraced primarily by a core of black leaders, progressive white leaders such as Walter Hines Page (p. 154), and some northern philanthropists. It would be decades before public education was firmly established in the South. Ã¢â¬Å"While a devastated South fought and struggled to survive, the North, ironically, passed through the tragic years of war and reconstruction more prosperous than ever,Ã¢â¬ says Alexander Rippa (p. 156). In the 1880s another wave of immigration began, settling primarily in northern urban centers; and these Ã¢â¬Å"newÃ¢â¬ immigrants, mostly from Eastern Europe, brought with them cultural patterns which differed greatly from native-born Americans and the northern and western European immigrants who preceded them. Between 1890 and 1920, 18 million new citizens debarked in America (Booth, Washington Post). Existing social problems became even more pressing. There was a perception among native-born Americans that the social problems of the cities stemmed from the changing character of the new immigrants (p. 71). There was a new urgency to Americanize these latest groups. This urgency played its part in the general willingness in the northern states to establish systematic public education. The Melting Pot What did it mean to Ã¢â¬Å"AmericanizeÃ¢â¬ a non native-born population? It meant much more than teaching English to new citizens. It also meant establishing a loyalty to the United States, instilling a devotion to democracy, and breaking up ethnic and cultural loyalties (p. 171). The public school became directly involved in this social task in the late 1800s. In 1908 a play opened in Washington, D.C. entitled Ã¢â¬Å"The Melting PotÃ¢â¬ (Booth, Washington Post). The playwright was Israel Zangwill, a Jewish immigrant from England, and the message of the play was that all immigrants could be transformed into a new alloy in the crucible of Ã¢â¬Å"democracy, freedom, and civic responsibilityÃ¢â¬ (ibid. ). Zangwill believed old cultural hatreds had no place in a new country; he claimed that God Ã¢â¬Å"was using America as a Ã¢â¬ËcrucibleÃ¢â¬â¢ to melt the Ã¢â¬ËfiftyÃ¢â¬â¢ barbarian tribes of Europe into a metal from which he can cast AmericansÃ¢â¬ (www. pbs. org). This was not a gentle metaphor. The product of the melting pot would be completely transformed; the original metals would have lost their original identities under the influence of the extreme heat. ZangwillÃ¢â¬â¢s chief concern was that the old cultural and religious hatreds of the emigres would be perpetuated in America, but he believed that part of the melting pot effect would be that people would marry across ethnic and religious barriers. Other conceptions of the melting pot focused on acculturation and economic assimilation through deliberate means such as public education and projects such as Jane AddamsÃ¢â¬â¢ Hull House. The metaphor of a melting pot had idealistic overtones as well as fear of social chaos built in. There was also an element of xenophobia and fear that immigrants would maintain their loyalties to foreign powers. But there was also a genuine desire to help people improve their lives and become economically and culturally successful in their new country. Zangwill himself believed that if immigrants would undergo the melting pot, they would be Ã¢â¬Å"just as American as anyone elseÃ¢â¬ (ibid. ). The melting pot was a quite complicated idea, with regional differences as well. A chief goal of American classrooms, especially in northern cities, was to melt down the distinctive cultural metals into the new American alloy. Compulsory attendance assured that all children would be exposed to this process. By the end of World War I, most states, regardless of geographical differences, had enacted compulsory school laws, although the upper age limits differed (Rippa, p. 172). In 1911 in the major urban centers, over half of the public school population consisted of the children of immigrant parents (p. 173). The melting pot was not a universally accepted social vision of the way America ought to be. An early critic of homogeneity and uniformity was the essayist Randolph Bourne. He envisioned a pluralistic society in which difference would be valued (Fischer, et. al. , 1997, p. 15). In a 1916 essay, Bourne asks Ã¢â¬Å"whether perhaps the time has not come to assert a higher ideal than the Ã¢â¬Ëmelting potÃ¢â¬â¢. . . . America is a unique sociological fabric, and it bespeaks poverty of imagination not to be thrilled at the incalculable potentialities of so novel a union of menÃ¢â¬ (ibid. pp. 16, 17). Bourne believed that a cosmopolitan society would be creative and would most accurately embody democratic ideals. Some of the harshest rhetoric in this article, first published in the Atlantic Monthly, is reserved for the role of the public school in perpetuating a shallow popular culture: Ã¢â¬Å"This ( a public school education) does not mean that they (immigrants) have actually been changed into New Englanders or Middle Westerners. It does not mean that they have really been Americanized. It means that, letting slip from them whatever native culture they had, they have substituted for it only the most rudimentary America the American culture of the cheap newspaper, the Ã¢â¬Ëmovies,Ã¢â¬â¢ the popular song, the ubiquitous automobile. The unthinking who survey this class call them assimilated, Americanized. The great American public school has done its workÃ¢â¬ (ibid. , p. 16). Although the term Ã¢â¬Å"melting potÃ¢â¬ was, and is, generally associated with assimilating European immigrants, especially eastern Europeans in the early years of the 20th century, the issue of assimilation extended beyond this group. In the South, the problem of assimilation included bringing African Americans and poverty stricken white children into the economic mainstream. The south, as a region, had to redefine itself as part of a nation and not as a separate culture. In the southwestern states, assimilation was focused on Native Americans and Mexicans who lived in the territories ceded to the United States by Mexico in 1848. In the western states and territories, the immigrant population of concern was Chinese. What kind of education was provided for the immigrant population? Jacob Riis was a humanitarian reformer, a journalist and photographer who chronicled the lives of New YorkÃ¢â¬â¢s immigrant poor. A representative description comes from RiisÃ¢â¬â¢s The Children of the Poor (Best Sidwell, 1967). . . . and the discovery has been made by their teachers that as the crowds pressed harder their school-rooms have marvelously expanded, until they embrace within their walls an unsuspected multitude, even many a slum tenement itself, cellar, Ã¢â¬Å"stoop,Ã¢â¬ attic, and all. Every lesson of cleanliness, of order, and of English taught at the school is reflected into some wretched home, and rehearsed there as far as the limited opportunities will allow. No demonstration with soap and water upon a dirty little face but widens the sphere of these chief promoters of education in the slums. . . . Naturally the teaching of these children must begin by going backward. The process may be observed in the industrial schools, of which there are twenty-one scattered through the poor tenement districts, with a total enrolment of something over five thousand pupils. . . .Whatever its stamp of nationality, the curriculum is much the same. The start, as often as is necessary, is made with an object lesson soap and water being the elements and the child the object. The alphabet comes second on the list. Later on follow lessons in sewing, cooking, carpentry for the boys, and like practical Ã¢â¬Å"branchesÃ¢â¬ of which the home affords the child no demonstration. . . . Very lately a unique exercise has been added to the course in the schools, that lays hold of the very marrow of the problem with which they deal. It is called Ã¢â¬Å"saluting the flag,Ã¢â¬ and originated with Colonel George T. Balch, of the Board of Education, who conceived the idea of instilling patriotism into the little future citizens of the Republic in doses to suit their childish minds. To talk about the Union, of which most of them had but the vaguest notion, or of the duty of the citizen, of which they had no notion at all, was nonsense. In the flag it was all found embodied in a central idea which they could grasp. In the morning the star-spangled banner was brought into the school, and the children were taught to salute it with patriotic words. Then the best scholar of the day before was called out of the ranks, and it was given to him or her to keep for the day. The thing took at once and was a tremendous success. Kindergarten also became a popular mode of education for assimilation as it was thought to instill order in the young child (ibid. ). Booker T. Washington and W. E. B. DuBois Two of the early twentieth centuryÃ¢â¬â¢s most powerful voices in black America disagreed with each other on matters of assimilation. Their argument echoes in contemporary America. Booker T. Washington was born into slavery in Virginia, and was liberated at the age of nine at the end of the Civil War. His rise from humble circumstances into prominence as a nationally recognized educator and spokesperson for African- Americans was chronicled in his autobiography, Up From Slavery (1901). Washington worked in coal mines and salt furnaces before attending Hampton Institute, an industrial school for African-Americans. He later established and administered Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute, emulating the model of vocational education he himself received (World Book, vol. 21, pp88-89). Washington stressed vocational education and the social skills that would allow African-Americans to move relatively seamlessly into the economy. It was an incremental approach and Ã¢â¬Å"the schoolhouseÃ¢â¬ (Best Sidwell, p. 281) was essential, followed by the very best of vocational education. Washington, writing in 1904 in Working With the Hands (Best Sidwell, p. 281) says, Ã¢â¬Å"We must be sure that we shall make our greatest progress by keeping our feet on the earth, and by remembering that an inch of progress is worth a yard of complaint. . . .All the Negro race asks is that the door which rewards industry, thrift, intelligence, and character be left as wide open for him as for the foreigner who constantly comes to our country. More than this, he has no right to request. Less than this, a Republic has no right to vouchsafeÃ¢â¬ (ibid. , p. 283). WashingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s vision of the assimilation of African-Americans into the mainstream at the turn of the century had much in common with the ideology of the melting pot. At Tuskegee Institute in Alabama, WashingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s system of industrial education was aimed toward creating economically indispensable workers who would have the skills, the work ethic, and the demeanor of the larger society. W. E. B. Du Bois was born in Massachusetts three years after the end of the Civil War. His great grandfather was a white plantation owner in Haiti, and his mother was a free African-American. Du BoisÃ¢â¬â¢ childhood and education were much different from Booker T. WashingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s. He attended racially mixed schools, and was encouraged by his high school principal to enroll in the college preparatory curriculum. White benefactors funded his college education at Fisk University. Du Bois eventually earned a Ph. D. rom Harvard University, gaining preeminence as a pioneer in sociological survey methods. He was a political activist, passionately committed to the belief that African-Americans deserved the educational opportunity denied them by a segregated society, including and most especially, the opportunity for university and professional education (Gutek, 1997, pp. 371-392). Education played an enormous role in the personal lives and the visions of both Washington and Du Bois, but t heir educational emphases and methods of assimilation were antagonistic to one another. Du Bois wanted to push the society: Washington believed African-Americans, as a group, had to deal with the harsh realities of a segregated society by first demonstrating that they were indispensable to the economic health of the society. This implied vocational education rather than scholarship and political activism. The interpretation of equal educational opportunity would be re-visited in a serious way in the 1940s, 50s, and 60s. The metaphor of the melting pot seems an ironic one for a population which had been deliberately excluded from mainstream culture for hundreds of years on the basis of a salient difference skin color. ZangwillÃ¢â¬â¢s notion of ethnic blending through intermarriage did not sit well with southern white society, and was referred to as miscegenation. And yet, Booker T. WashingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s view of assimilation is congruent with the idea of merging, melting, and blending into the economic whole. The ideas of W. E. B. Du Bois, on the other hand, require another metaphor. Du Bois challenges the structure of the society itself. Beyond the Melting Pot In 1963, two sociologists took an in-depth look at the role of ethnicity in the life of New York City. In the preface to their book Beyond the Melting Pot (1963), Nathan Glazer and Daniel Patrick Moynihan say, Ã¢â¬Å"The notion that the intense and unprecedented mixture of ethnic and religious groups in American life was soon to blend into a homogeneous end product has outlived its usefulness, and also its credibility. . . . The point about the melting pot, as we see later, is that it did not happen. At least not in New York and, mutatis mutandis, in those parts of America which resemble New YorkÃ¢â¬ (p. xcvii). Glazer and Moynihan focus on the third and fourth generations of Ã¢â¬Å"newcomersÃ¢â¬ (ibid. as represented by five identifiable groups in the city of New York: African-Americans, Puerto Ricans, Jews, Italians, and Irish. The title of their book implies both the time and place of their scholarly focus as well as the need for a new metaphor to describe what they see. One of the major conclusions of Beyond the Melting Pot is that Ã¢â¬Å"The ethnic group in America became not a survival from the age of mass immigration but a new social formÃ¢â¬ (p. 16). Thus, the authors take the melting pot out of the realm of ideology, and see it in its descriptive elements. Essentially the melting pot does not exist except in the imagination, they believe. Glazer and Moynihan are not much interested in the role of education as a social institution. Rather, they are interested in the way social groups form and identify themselves and work toward common interests. They acknowledge that immigrants to America did lose their language and alter their culture, and that several generations ago it did seem reasonable to project that eventually ethnicity would give way to a new national identity. But they note that ethnic groups re-create themselves as something new, which mark them off. And these differences are operative in social policy (ibid. , 12-14). In a sense, ethnicity is as much an interest group as it is a cultural group, so there is a reason to maintain the differences rather than blend them. Getting ahead in the society would depend upon maintaining this interest group and the political power it wields rather than diminishing the difference. In this case, the metaphor of the melting pot would be counter-productive to the actual interests of the Ã¢â¬Å"ethnicÃ¢â¬ group. In Glazer and MoynihanÃ¢â¬â¢s work, we see the immigrant in a new light. The immigrant is not one to whom something must be done or someone who must somehow be brought into the fold or helped in some way. Now the immigrant is spoken of as a political force. Civil Rights and Equal Opportunity The 1960s and 1970s were decades in which the language of assimilation evolved into the language of civil rights and equal opportunity, largely as the result of a group of highly educated African-American legal scholars and charismatic leaders such as Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. . The melting pot metaphor was left behind, and a language of rights was put in its place. Again, public education became a focus, and for several reasons. The separate but equal system of education in the southern states was a sitting duck for legal challenge. The system was patently unequal, and it took only the doggedness of lawyers such as Charles Hamilton Houston and the legal expertise of the NAACP to mount a challenge to this system. The end result was the Brown vs. The Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas decision, which struck down the separate but equal legal precedent. Public education became the focal point for discourse about how to bring African-Americans into the economic mainstream and how to foster their access to all the opportunities of a democratic society. This was not a melting pot issue because African-Americans themselves were challenging the moral authority of the political system. They were demanding the natural rights that the United States Constitution bestowed on its citizens. They were articulating a theme which had not been fully acknowledged in public discourse about assimilation that certain groups had been deliberately denied the American dream of social mobility and social equality. Public education was seen as an important avenue for social mobility and economic parity. It was, and is, a perceived means to achieve the goals of creating and maintaining a common set of civic virtues and economic and social stability. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 forbids discrimination in any federally funded program, including, of course, public education. The Elementary and Secondary Education Act passed by the United States Congress in the following year made significant Federal dollars available, thereby enticing school systems to conform to the 1954 Brown vs. Board mandate. The courts and the Congress were challenged in their own terms to respond to the demands of a minority interest group to have the promise of America made good. The legal system and the United States legislature were again used as instrument to address the neglect of other interest groups. Schools were to be venues for promoting equality, in response to legislative and legal mandates, but they were not serving as melting pots. In 1974, the United States Supreme Court ruled that school systems denied students their equal opportunity to receive the benefit of a public education if they did not provide language instruction for children whose primary language was other than English (Rippa, p. 408). Public Law 94-142, signed by then President Gerald Ford in 1975, established the right to a free, public, appropriate, least restrictive education for students with physical and intellectual disabilities (pp. 397-398). This original law has undergone a number of amendments that essentially expanded and refined the original law. It is now best known as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Ã¢â¬â IDEA. In 1972, Title IX of the education amendments of the 1964 Civil Rights Act made it illegal for anyone to be denied on the basis of sex the benefits of any activity or program receiving Federal funds (p. 277). The melting pot idea has been turned on its head through the efforts of special interest groups who have no desire to be thoroughly assimilated into the dominant culture, but who wish to have equal opportunity for economic and political parity in America. Contemporary Melting Pot Issues In the 21st century, the tension between common national values and pluralism, or multiculturalism, is prominent in national discourse. Some have called this the culture wars, but it is more profound than that: it is a philosophical and psychological tension inherent in democracy. The debate shows up in school matters, for example, when curriculum and instructional decisions have to be made about teaching English as a second language. Should non-native speakers have instruction in their own language as well as learning English? Will they be held back if they are placed in classes designed for non-native speakers of English? Should they be taught to be competent in the grammar and syntax of their native languages as well as English? The larger question might be, Ã¢â¬Å"Can one hold dual citizenship, so to speak, in America and in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s culture of originÃ¢â¬ ? The notion of cultural literacy, as articulated by E. D. Hirsch (1987), proposes that there is a common core of cultural knowledge which all Americans should possess if they are to be fully educated, capable citizens. Cultural literacyÃ¢â¬ , of course begs the question Ã¢â¬Å"Whose culture? Ã¢â¬ An answer satisfactory to all parties in the debate has not been given. What knowledge should be common to all citizens? What should public schools require as cultural literacy? Again, where is the balance to be struck between maintaining cultural identity and national identity that transcends cultural differences? The push for values education as a part of the formal public school curriculum also embodies an argument concerning which values should be taught as well as who has the authority to make such decisions. A more extreme version of this issue centers around whether to allow faith-based groups to have formal connection with public schools to teach religious values. Tracking, special education, magnet schools, single gender education, and giftedness programs all designed to meet special needs and foster economic stability are not uniformly accepted as good. Do they create strong class barriers of a different kind, or do they ameliorate barriers that prevent particular classes of people from reaching their growth potential? Summary Some careful observers of American culture in the 1700s predicted that in a society of pioneers and emigres, traditional ethnic, religious, and cultural differences would be erased as people adapted to a new society, intermarried, and focused their attention on prospering in a new social order. The idea was that assimilation would be a natural, gradual, somewhat orderly process. J. Hector St. John Crevecoeur, a French essayist who eventually settled in New York State, writes in 1782: What, then, is the new American, this new man? He is neither a European, nor the descendant of a European; hence that strange mixture of blood, which you will find in no other country. I could point out to you a family whose grandfather was an Englishman, whose wife was Dutch, whose son married a French woman, and whose present four sons have now four wives of different nations. He is an American, who, leaving behind him all his ancient prejudices and manners, receives new ones from the new modes of life he has embraced, the new government he obeys, and the new rank he holds. He becomes an American by being received in the broad lap of our great Alma Mater. Here individuals of all nations are melted into a new race of men, whose labors and posterity will one day cause great changes in the world (Crevecoeur, pp. 41-45) In the early 1800s, and again in the years surrounding the centuryÃ¢â¬â¢s turn, the notion of natural, gradual assimilation was challenged by the sheer numbers of new immigrants and by the fact that the later waves of immigration consisted of eastern Europeans, who were much different in culture from the already established groups. Egregious urban social problems and escalating tensions between the new immigrants and established groups created a new urgency for the solution of these problems, which were perceived as threatening the social order. Public schooling assumed a prominent role in assimilation in the late 1800s and early 1900s. Its job was to enculturate the masses of new immigrants, to instill in them a sense of loyalty to the United States, and to make them economically viable. The school as a social institution has been mobilized to effect massive social changes since the mid 1800s. Whether these changes have always been successful is arguable. Schools have been enlisted to reinforce the new Republic, improve the moral character of the society, decrease social class differences, assimilate immigrant groups, teach citizenship skills, provide skills for economic success, meet the needs of individuals for personal growth, improve the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s competitive advantage in the world market, provide social mobility, model democratic virtues for the young, and reduce racial and ethnic prejudice. American political and cultural ideology has contained a set of tensions from its earliest articulation. E pluribus unum and diversity are twin American values. The melting pot, as a metaphor and an ideal has its critics. Homogeneity of culture and values is in tension with cosmopolitan vitality; pride in being an American contends with the possible loss of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s particular cultural identity; an emphasis on economic prosperity as a mundane value competes with more abstract values. And the nature of the process of assimilation has a variety of contentious advocates: there are those who recommend a gradual process through economic productivity, and then there are those who demand immediate recognition and acceptance into the mainstream. The interest groups evolve, but the arguments remain the same. In the 1960s and 1970s there was a renewed interest in assimilation that focused less on ethnicity and cultural differences in defining the discourse of assimilation around the language of equal opportunity and civil rights. Women, African-Americans, Native Americans, and Latinos became vocal as interest groups, and their issues were primarily centered on economic advancement and other social opportunities. Politics became at least as important as education as a means to these ends, although education was still seen as a key to the golden door of opportunity. In contemporary America, the discourse of assimilation includes distinctively educational matters. The structure of schooling, assessment of learning, curriculum content and materials, instructional strategies, special needs of students, school fundingall contain the tensions of the melting pot. The discourse around these issues and others seems to have made a metaphorical shift from Ã¢â¬Å"the melting potÃ¢â¬ to the militant Ã¢â¬Å"culture warsÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"class warsÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"gender warsÃ¢â¬ The metaphor of war was being proposed as early as the 1930s and 1940s. Louis Adamic, a widely read and respected novelist and journalist, describes Ã¢â¬Å"a psycho- logical Civil WarÃ¢â¬ in his work Two Way Passage (1941, p. 85). His book explores the growing tensions in American society in the pre-World War II years. He says: Economic and industrial problems, labor, education, trends in writing, the theater, architecture, and other arts were attracting a lot of attention (in the 1930s). They interested me too. But little heed was paid in print and on the platform to the United States as a conglomerate of peoples the result of a great migration. Little attention was directed to the intricacies and maladjustments which grew up in its train. There was little realization that in the process cultures were being shattered. This last fact appeared to me most important. The old-stock American cultural patterns of a hundred years ago clashed with the Old World ways ( as revised by the slum and the factory ) of new-immigrant groups and partially destroyed them. It was a negative business. Many values, both old-American and new-immigrant, were not adjusted to the needs of contemporary America. Nor did they fuse or merge. They were simply ground out, pushed aside, scrapped, without giving rise to new values. They either went down through lack of character, through irresponsibility and vulgarity, or they were clung to desperately, in toto and thus perverted and devitalized. . . . Like the peoples of Europe, we in America have not yet completely synchronized the two-way impulse to homogeneity and diversity. We have experienced both but, as our sporadic psychological civil war with its several fronts demonstrates, we have not achieved a steady, continuous balance between them. When we examine our resemblances we find that one of them is our common against-ness; when we look at our differences, most of them charged with potentialities for good, we see that all too often they function defensively against other differences.Where can this take us? (1941, pp. 87-88). This seems an apt question to ask 60 plus years later. Glazer and Moynihan made direct reference to a metaphorical shift in the title of their 1963 work, Beyond the Melting Pot. They also questioned the reality of the melting pot. This seems to be the abiding tension in the idea of the melting pot finding a balance between pluralism and homogeneity in values in multiple public arenas education, politics, popular culture, social policy, and economics. If cultural metaphors belie true modes of thinking, it should be somewhat disturbing to note the metaphorical shift to Ã¢â¬Å"warÃ¢â¬ . Wars imply victors and the vanquished, a state of affairs America has not seen since 1865.
Monday, March 9, 2020
The Georgia Colony was one of the 13 original colo Essays The Georgia Colony was one of the 13 original colonies in America. The 13 original colonies were divided up into three regions including the New England Colonies, the Middle Colonies, and the Southern Colonies. The Georgia Colony was one of the Southern Colonies which also included the Maryland Colony, the Virginia Colony, the North Carolina Colony and the South Carolina Colony. The Georgia Colony was the last of the 13 original colonies to be established. It was founded in 1732 by several colonists including James Oglethorpe. The Georgia Colony was named after King George II of England, as specified by the king himself in the charter granting the colony . Some of the struggles colonists faced were shortages of food, adjusting to the new climate, and in the first summer many people died of yellow fever . Most people in colonial Georgia were small farmers. Each family was given a small farm, which descended to the male heir. The people were somewhat isolated from the rest of the colonies, and mail hardly reached Georgia, especially farther from the coast. There weren't roads to connect settlers, and the only town was the small village of Savannah. I n colonial Georgia, women worked hard cooking, cleaning, raising vegetables, spinning wool and yarn and raising children. They also knitted clothing, like stockings and sweaters, and they made their own soap and candles. Women were also tasked with milking cows, churning milk to make butter and gathering berries and nuts as additional food sources. Some fun facts about colonial Georgia are that Georgia's original name was Province of Georgia. Georgia was the last American colony founded , nearly 50 years after the other 12. Georgia's capital has moved four times since it was founded. Georgia went through many hardships. Colonist struggled with the summer heat, and did not have much land to work with. Women had it especially hard because they had to raise their children while doing many different tasks. This last American colony to be founded has managed to survive after all their hardships and isolation from the other colonies.
Friday, February 21, 2020
ECONOMICS OF warfare - Essay Example Difference-indifferences estimator is used in econometrics to investigate how changes in variables in the environment affect the macroeconomics. Armed conflict is one of the factors that affect economic growth and development. A number of studies have been carried to establish the adverse effect of armed conflict on the economy of a nation. The researchers have been using the difference-in-differences idea to try to understand the significance of armed conflict on the outcome of an economy (Wooldridge, 2009). Armed conflict has serious economic implications. Historically, wars have destroyed economies that were robust and were promising. The world wars were unfortunate occurrences that brought the world economies into an economic crisis. Although most countries recovered for the fiasco, conflicts persist especially in African countries. Rwanda is one of the countries that were worst hit by armed conflict. The enmity between the Hutu and Tutsi saw the world witness one of the deadliest genocides. The two ethnic communities fled their country to go and seek asylum in neighboring countries. Property was destroyed. Lives were lost. Consequently, the within a short period, the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s economy was on the verge of being bedridden. Intervention from the international community and other humanitarian agencies mitigated the conflict that had threatened to escalate to uncontrollable levels. Due to the intervention, salinity was brought in the country. Development partners and non-governmen tal organizations flocked the state with an objective of aiding them recover from the aftermath of the armed conflict. Furthermore, Rwanda became a case study of economists who started investigating the implication of the War on RwandaÃ¢â¬â¢s economy. The World Bank is among one those development partners that examined the impact of the event. Researchers of the study used the